Catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSI’s) are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections.

Did You Know?

Each manual syringe stroke can introduce bacteria into the syringe barrel.1,2,3

Did You Know?

When using push-pull, providers often violate aseptic technique – up to 23 times in one study.4

Did You Know?

Syringes used multiple times on the same patient have been observed to have a 26.5% contamination rate.5

Improper syringe use is a source of hospital-acquired infection.

A simple fluorescein experiment demonstrates the risks of push-pull. To visually demonstrate the results of similar studies, fluorescein is applied to a gloved hand. With repeated emptying and refilling of the syringe, fluorescein travels past the plunger. Repeated use of the same syringe in a single patient is not recommended.6

Fluorescein on index finger

Bacteria from the provider’s hand may be carried into the syringe

Droplet migration after simulating a 1L infusion

Try it Yourself

An easy demonstration of how a push-pull syringe is contaminated with bacteria. All you’ll need is:

  • Fluorescein salt
  • Bowl and stir stick
  • 1/4 teaspoon
  • Small syringe
  • 20ml syringe

LifeFlow is Designed to Protect the Syringe from Bacterial Contamination

Graph showing the frequency of contact with steril syringe plunger during 500ml infusion

Journal of Infusion Nursing

Jan/Feb 2019, Vol. 42, Issue 1, p23

“Rapid fluid resuscitation is used to treat pediatric septic shock. However, achieving fluid delivery goals while maintaining aseptic technique can be challenging. Two methods of fluid resuscitation—the commonly used push-pull technique (PPT) and a new fluid infusion technique using the LifeFlow device (410 Medical, Inc; Durham, NC)—were compared in a simulated patient model. PPT was associated with multiple aseptic technique violations related to contamination of the syringe barrel. This study confirms the risk of PPT-associated syringe contamination and suggests that this risk could be mitigated with the use of a protected syringe system, such as LifeFlow.”

  1. Olivier LC, Kendoff D, Wolfhard, et al. Modified syringe design prevents plunger-related contamination: results of contamination and flow rate test. J Hosp Infect. 2003; 53: 140-143
  2. Blogg CE, Ramsay MA, Jarvis JD. Infection hazard from syringes. Br J Anaesth 1974; 46: 260-262
  3. Chatrath M, et al. Intraoperative Contamination of Fluids by Anesthesia Providers. Presented at the 2012 Society of Pediatric Anesthesia.
  5. Heid, Florian, et al. “Microbial contamination of anesthetic syringes in relation to different handling habits.” American journal of infection control 44.3 (2016): e15-e17
  6. American Society of Anesthesiologists, Infection Control Committee, Committee on Occupational Health. Recommendations for infection control for the practice of anesthesiology, third edition. Available from: Accessed June 23, 2015